The UKAEL runs a programme of regular events that will appeal to those with an interest in European Union law.
UKAEL is a recognised CPD provider accredited by the Solicitors Regulation Authority (reference DRP/UKAEL) and the Bar Standards Board.
UKAEL Webinar: Central Precepts of EU Law: Perspectives from the EU and from the UK – 5 April 2022
The central tenets of EU law continue to develop and evolve. This webinar considered developments relating to direct effect and the supremacy of EU law from the perspective of the CJEU. It also addressed the way in which these and related concepts play out in domestic case law post-Brexit, in cases arising under the EU (Withdrawal) Act 2018 and other legislation. These issues were discussed by Prof Michael Dougan, Dr Eleni Frantziou and Alan Bates, with Prof Paul Craig in the chair.
The webinar was attended by close to 50 participants from the UK, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Ireland, Spain, Portugal and Finland.
UKAEL Webinar: Brexit, the TCA and UK-EU Relations: One Year On – 2 February 2022
2021 was a turbulent post-Brexit year, made all the more difficult by COVID. This webinar took stock of the trading relationship broadly conceived between the UK and the EU after one year. The legal and political relationship concerning services and goods, together with some of the key legal considerations concerning other aspects of the TCA and Withdrawal Agreement, were discussed. The three contributors to the webinar were Prof Sarah Hall, Prof Martin Heneghan and Prof Paul Craig.
The Webinar was attended by 65 participants from the UK, Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Sweden and Finland.
Joint UKAEL/FIDE Finland Webinar: The European Court of Justice and National Constitutional Courts: Resistance or Cooperation? – 23 November 2021
The relationship between the Court of Justice of the EU and national constitutional courts is complicated. Historically, we have witnessed both instances of fruitful cooperation in the development of European norms and various forms of – at least potential – conflict. In recent years, the conflicts that had mostly remained dormant have emerged in a number of rulings of senior national courts. This occurred most famously when the German Constitutional Court in May 2020 rejected the judgment of the Court of Justice in Weiss, claiming that the European Court had exceeded its judicial mandate. This in turn has given rise to a European Commission infringement action against Germany, which will force the European Court to react to the German ruling. At the same time, other national courts, such as the Supreme Court of Denmark and the Conseil d’Etat of France, have also weighed in on the issue, while the Polish Constitutional Tribunal on 7 October 2021 held that a number of fundamental provisions of the EU Treaty are incompatible with the Polish constitution. This webinar explored the issue with the help of two former judges of the European Court of Justice as well as leading scholars of European and comparative law.
Sir David Edward QC KCMG PC (former Judge at European Court of Justice): “Setting out the Scene: the Relationship between Domestic Courts and the European Court of Justice“
Prof Allan Rosas (former Judge at European Court of Justice): “Mangold and Beyond”
Prof Gráinne De Búrca (Florence Ellinwood Allen Professor of Law, New York University): “Constitutionalism Pluralism: an Obstacle or an Asset for the EU?”
Prof Jacques Ziller (Honorary Professor at the Universities of Paris-1 Panthéon-Sorbonne and Pavia): “Ultra Vires and Member States’ Courts
The webinar was chaired by Prof Paul Craig and attended by close to 80 people.
EU Law in Practice: A Discussion with EU Law Professionals – 17 November 2021
The UKAEL invited students, trainee solicitors and pupil barristers to an evening of short talks on practising EU Law. The presentations addressed the practice of EU Law post Brexit, in different sectors of the professional world. Speakers covered typical work scenarios and career patterns in their field and there was a lively Q&A session afterwards.
The International Law Firm: Tom McGrath, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP
The Government Legal Service: Caroline Ross OBE, International Trade GLD
Academia: Professor Andrea Biondi, King’s College London
The Bar: Jessica Simor QC, Matrix Chambers
Chair: Professor Philippa Watson, Essex Court Chambers, Hon. Secretary UKAEL
The meeting was followed by a reception generously hosted by Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP. The 70 students attending came from the University of Law, Middlesex University London, King’s College London, City Law School, London South Bank University and BPP.
UKAEL Webinar: CJEU Jurisdiction, the Autonomy of the EU Legal Order and Arbitration – 10 November 2021
The decision of the Grand Chamber in Case C-741/19 Republic of Moldova v Komstroy LLC, 2 September 2021, raises important questions concerning the CJEU’s jurisdiction, international agreements to which the EU is a party, the scope of EU law, the autonomy of the legal order and international arbitration. The CJEU drew heavily on its reasoning in Case C-284/16 Achmea, EU:C:2018:158, and extended it to the jurisdictional provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty. Discussing and debating the issues raised by the decision, this UKAEL webinar featured three acknowledged experts: Sir Alan Dashwood, Isabelle Van Damme and Prof Takis Tridimas.
The webinar was chaired by Prof Paul Craig and had almost 60 attendees from the UK, Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, Ireland, Sweden, Italy, France, Luxembourg and Portugal.
UKAEL Webinar: Rule of Law, Backsliding and the EU – 28 June 2021
The rule of law problems that beset the EU have been met with a range of legal and political responses, including litigation before the CJEU and legislative intervention by the EU. This webinar addressed three central facets of the rule of law crisis.
Prof Laurent Pech considered the role played by key CJEU decisions concerning challenges to the independence of the judiciary in certain Member States, most notably Poland and Hungary. Carlos Closa Montero analysed the recent EU rule of law conditionality legislation and assessed its efficacy. Prof Kim Lane Scheppele focused on the underlying political, legal and constitutional situation in Poland and Hungary, which is the cause of the attendant problems for the EU.
The webinar was chaired by Prof Paul Craig and attracted an international audience of 50 people.
UKAEL Webinar: The TCA, the Withdrawal Agreement, Retained Law and Private Rights – 26 May 2021
The Trade and Cooperation Agreement, coupled with the Withdrawal Agreement and UK legislation implementing these treaty obligations, gives rise to several important legal questions. This webinar focussed on three such topics. Prof Catherine Barnard considered issues relating to retained law; Prof Chris McCrudden discussed legal issues flowing from the Northern Ireland Protocol; and Prof Paul Craig analysed the extent to which private rights flow from the TCA when viewed in the light of the European Union (Future Relations) Act 2020.
This webinar attracted an international audience of over 60 people.
UKAEL Webinar: UK Competition Law Post-Brexit – 25 March 2021
This webinar considered the future of UK competition law in a post-Brexit world and addressed central issues of competition law and policy. Jonathan Scott presented the perspective from the Competition and Markets Authority; Sarah Long focussed on vertical restraints; Anneli Howard QC examined issues relating to private enforcement and class actions; and Prof Andrea Biondi assessed state aids.
The webinar was chaired by Prof Paul Craig, President of the UKAEL, and attracted 45 attendees from the UK, Ireland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Denmark and France.
UKAEL Webinar: The Trade and Co-Operation Agreement: Central Legal Issues – 16 February 2021
The TCA was agreed at the 11th hour, just days before the end of the transition period. It will shape UK-EU legal relations hereafter, and that remains so notwithstanding possible further supplementary agreements. This webinar focussed on four of the central legal issues that constitute the core of the TCA: the provisions relating to goods (Prof Peter Oliver); services, including the prospects for financial services (Prof Niamh Moloney); law enforcement and judicial cooperation in criminal matters (Prof John Spencer CBE); and the level playing field (Prof Paul Craig). The webinar brought together four scholars with expertise in these respective areas and provided a valuable guide to this complex terrain.
The webinar was full to capacity (100 people) and attracted attendees from the UK, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Denmark, the US, Poland, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg.
UKAEL Webinar: The UK/EU Relationship after 31 December: Immediate and Longer-Term Perspectives – 10 December 2020
In lieu of its Annual Lecture and Reception, cancelled due to Covid-19, the UKAEL warmly invited its membership to a Zoom Webinar.
We welcomed four leading practitioners and academic experts in the field of EU/UK relations. Prof Marise Cremona is Professor Emeritus of European Law at the European University Institute in Florence. Sir Jonathan Faull has been a Partner and Chair of European Public Affairs at the Brunswick Group since 2017. Lord Hannay has been an independent member of the House of Lords since 2001 and is currently a member of its International Relations and Defence Committee. Prof Anand Menon is Professor of European Politics and Foreign Affairs at King’s College London and directs the UK in a Changing Europe project. The discussion was chaired by Sir Alan Dashwood QC, the retiring President of the UKAEL.
The event was attended by over 60 people and there was a lively Q&A session following on from the presentations.
UKAEL Webinar: National Courts and the Enforcement of EU Law – 22 October 2020
Some of the questions discussed were:
– To what extent does the principle of national sovereignty imply a right for the Member States to derogate from EU law in relation to fundamental constitutional principles?
– Is the position of the Court of Justice of the European Union as the supreme court of the EU under increasing challenge from the supreme courts of its Member States?
– How will these issues be resolved in the United Kingdom in respect of retained EU law after the end of the transition period?
The UKAEL put together a panel of leading legal specialists with a combination of expertise: Helen Mountfield QC (chair) is a founder member of Matrix Chambers and Principal of Mansfield College Oxford. Theodore Konstadinides is Professor of Law and Anastasia Karatzia is a Lecturer in Law at the School of Law, University of Essex. Matthias Ruffert is Professor of Public Law and European Law at the Law Faculty of the Humboldt University Berlin since 2016. Rhodri Thompson QC is a specialist silk in UK and EU regulation and public law.
This event was hosted on the third-party platform Zoom and attracted an audience of over 30 people.
UKAEL Webinar: COVID 19 and the Functioning of the Internal Market – 22 July 2020
Tackling the COVID 19 pandemic has challenged national and EU authorities in many ways. It has also raised fundamental questions about the functioning of the internal market, including: The limits of the EU’s competence and the powers of the Member States to regulate free movement; The principle of solidarity between Member States and its limitations; The rights of migrants at times of crisis; The role of state aids rules in tackling the implications of the pandemic. The UKAEL brought together the following leading EU law experts to discuss these issues:
Prof Catherine Barnard is a British legal scholar, who specialises in European Union, employment, and competition law. Paul Craig is Emeritus Professor of English Law, St John’s College, Oxford. His research interests are constitutional law, administrative law, EU law and comparative law. Carles Esteva-Mosso is Deputy Director-General for State Aid at the Competition Directorate General of the European Commission. Panos Koutrakos is Professor of EU Law and Jean Monnet Professor of EU Law at City, University of London and a door tenant at Monckton Chambers. Eleanor Spaventa is Professor of European Law at Bocconi University, having spent the previous part of her career in the United Kingdom (Cambridge, Birmingham and Durham Universities).
Over 60 people attended the seminar which had to be held online due to COVID 19.
UKAEL Webinar: Competition Law and the Digital Economy – 23 June 2020
The webinar addressed one of the most pressing concerns of EU competition law. Digitalisation has brought profound changes to many industries, creating new business models and pricing structures. Businesses based on search engines, social media networks or price comparison websites often operate as platforms or networks and generate new problems arising out of their unusual pricing models and the huge volumes of data that they control and access. Although network competition and multi-faceted markets are not new, the scale and speed of growth of the digital economy create new challenges for competition analysis and enforcement. They also raise national and international competition enforcement issues of political and legal significance, as US and Chinese networks and businesses increasingly compete on a global scale. We assembled a panel of leading legal and economic specialists with a combination of expertise:
Prof Damien Geradin is the founding partner of Geradin Partners, a boutique competition law firm based in Brussels and Professor of Competition Law and Economics at Tilburg University and a visiting Professor at UCL. Matt Hunt is a partner in AlixPartners’ economics consulting practice. Dr Andriani Kalintiri is a lecturer in Competition Law at King’s College London. Dr Ryan Stones is a lecturer in Law at City, University of London. Rhodri Thompson QC (chair) is a leading specialist silk in UK and EU regulation and public law.
Due to Covid-19, this seminar took place online, with approximately 35 attendees.
UKAEL Young Researchers Workshop: Protecting the Rule of Law in the EU – 30 January 2020, River Room, King’s College London
The Workshop offered an opportunity for young researchers to discuss their work with leading EU law scholars and practitioners and to network with other academics working in the same or related fields. Submissions related to aspects of the protection of the rule of law in the EU:
The evolution of the notion of the rule of law in the EU;
Institutional and judicial procedures for the protection of the rule of law in the EU;
The protection in the Member States of the EU’s understanding of the rule of law;
The relationship between the rule of law and other EU fundamental values.
This was a roundtable event with presentations by Jacob van de Beeten (Behind the rule of law crisis: rethinking the ‘toolbox’ approach), Franca Feisel (Defending Constitutional Pluralism in light of the ‘Rule of Law’-Crises: Case C-19/08 Mattias Kumm and Miguel Maduro v R. Daniel Kelemen) and Zamira Xhaferri (Delegation of rulemaking to the European Commission in law and practice). These were followed by feedback from EU Law experts Sir Alan Dashwood QC, Prof Andrea Biondi, Prof Panos Koutrakos and Prof Adam Lazowski.
The workshop was followed by a drinks reception for the 20 attendees.
UKAEL Annual Lecture: The UK Constitution and Brexit – 4 December 2019, Edmond J Safra Theatre, King’s College London
Lord Neuberger of Abbotsbury gave the Annual Address to an audience of over 90 people, followed by a Q&A session and a very lively drinks reception.
In the Chair: Sir Alan Dashwood QC
The UK constitution is flexible, a quality much in demand in recent years. In his UKAEL Annual Lecture for 2019, Lord Neuberger set events in the period since the June 2016 Referendum within the context of constitutional developments over the past half century: in the 1970s, the UK’s access to the European Communities (as they then were) and the start of the growth of judicial review; in the 1990s , the introduction of Human Rights into domestic law and the quasi-abolition of hereditary peers; in 2005 the Constitutional Reform Act; and then in 2010 the Fixed Term Parliaments Act and in 2016 the Referendum Act. The last two Acts have had a profound impact on our democratic conventions both inside and outside Parliament – and indeed, with the two Miller cases, on the involvement of the judiciary. Lord Neuberger offered some conclusions on what undoubtedly remains very much unfinished business.
UKAEL Student Evening: EU Law In Practice – A discussion With EU Law Professionals, 23 November 2019 – Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP
We invited students, trainee solicitors and pupil barristers to an evening of short talks on practising EU Law both now and post Brexit. The event was hosted by Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP.
This was an informal occasion to meet EU Law professionals and fellow EU Law students. The presentations addressed the practice of EU Law, both now and in the future, in different sectors of the professional world. Speakers covered typical work scenarios and career patterns of their work and answered numerous questions. The meeting was attended by over 90 people and was followed by a lively reception.
• The Bar: Anneli Howard, Monckton Chambers
• The Government: Adrian Roberts, DExEU Legal Advisers
• Academia: Prof Andrea Biondi, King’s College London
• The International Law Firm: Martin McElwee, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP
Prof Philippa Watson, UKAEL Hon Secretary, was in the Chair.
UKAEL Seminar: Effective Protection of EU-Derived Rights in the UK after Brexit – 13 November 2019, Bush House, Lecture Theatre 1.01, King’s College London
The United Kingdom Association for European Law invited legal practitioners, academics, students and the general public to a panel discussion regarding the critical issue of the protection of rights derived from EU law after the UK withdrawal from the EU. The need for protection of citizens’ rights has been common ground throughout the negotiations but the detail and scope of what is involved is far from being agreed, both for foreign residents and for UK and non-UK EU nationals wishing to live or work in other Member States. The seminar was attended by 40 people and followed by a lively drinks reception.
Luke Piper: “Citizens’ Rights in the Withdrawal Agreement”. Luke Piper is a solicitor at South West Law and legal advisor to the3million.
Monique Hawkins: “The Challenges Surrounding Settled Status”. Monique is a Dutch software analyst who has lived in the UK since 1984. Monique has since become a dual British-Dutch citizen. She also campaigns for fairer dual nationality legislation in the Netherlands.
Alison Pickup: “Citizens’ Rights in a No-Deal Scenario”. Alison is the Legal Director of the Public Law Project and an Associate Tenant at Doughty Street Chambers.
Rhodri Thompson QC: “The Rights of Non-Residents after Brexit”. Rhodri is Honorary Treasurer of the UKAEL and Chair of the EU Law Committee of the Bar Council and has appeared in many prominent cases in EU law, including the first Gina Miller case in the Divisional Court and Supreme Court.
The panel was chaired by Anneli Howard, a barrister at Monckton Chambers who acted in Miller 1, Article 127 Single Market challenge and Wightman.
UKAEL Seminar: The CJEU’s CETA Opinion and he Future of Investment Arbitration – 8 May 2019, City, University of London, Room B200 University Building
This was a highly topical panel discussion regarding the CETA Opinion of the European Court of Justice handed down on 30 April. Opinion 1/17 determines whether the Commission’s plans for the development of an Investment Court system as a successor to the existing system of international investment arbitration have any future. The Court’s Opinion has a bearing on the future of arbitration under the Energy Charter Treaty, and not only in intra-EU disputes. Will it be possible, in the light of the Opinion, to place a realistic limit on the safeguards the Court of Justice considers necessary to preserve the integrity of the EU legal order? Or is investment arbitration under international agreements, with the EU and its Member States as parties, liable to become a dead letter?
Panos Koutrakos, Professor of EU Law at City, University of London, and a Barrister at Monckton Chambers: ‘The CETA Opinion in the light of Achmea’
Sonja Boelaert, senior legal adviser for the Council of the European Union and the European Council: ‘The institutional perspective’
Christophe Bondy, of Cooley (UK) LLP, senior counsel in negotiations for the CETA: ‘The external perspective’
Sir Alan Dashwood QC, President of UKAEL, was in the chair.
The seminar was attended by 30 people and followed by a lively drinks reception.
UKAEL Seminar: The Future After Brexit – 30 January 2019, Edmond J. Safra Theatre, Kings College London
The United Kingdom Association for European Law in conjunction with the Bar European Group invited academics, students, legal practitioners and the general public to a panel discussion regarding the ramifications of the meaningful vote in Parliament for the UK’s future relationship with the EU.
Case C-621/18 Wightman– Revocability and Constitutional Implications: Aidan O’Neill QC, Matrix Chambers
Chair: Sir Alan Dashwood QC
Round Table: Implications for Trade and Sectoral Regulation
Chair: Kieron Beal QC
Environmental Issues: Begonia Filgueira
Free Movement of Services: Hugh Mercer QC
Legal Professionals: Philip Moser QC
Competition Law and State Aid: Jon Turner QC
Regulatory Co-Operation: Anneli Howard
Individual Rights and Civil Justice: Victoria Wakefield
The seminar was attended by over 100 people, many of whom proceeded to the drinks reception following on from the seminar.
UKAEL Seminar: After the Article 50 Judgment and the Commons Brexit Vote – What next? – 13 December 2018, Classroom (S) 2.03, Bush House, Kings College London
The United Kingdom Association for European Law invited academics, students, legal practitioners and the general public to a panel discussion regarding the recent CJEU ruling on the revocability of the Article 50 withdrawal notice and the constitutional implications of the meaningful vote in Parliament.
Speakers included: Gerry Facenna QC, Monckton Chambers; Prof Piet Eeckhout, University College London; Anneli Howard, Monckton Chambers; and Prof Takis Tridimas, Kings College London and Matrix Chambers.
The seminar attracted over 50 attendees and was followed by a drinks reception.
UKAEL Annual Lecture: Sovereignty, Law and the Common Good: Constitutional Lessons from Brexit – 4 December 2018, Edmond J Safra Theatre, King’s College London
Sir Martin Donnelly gave the Annual Address to an audience of over 60 people, followed by a very lively Q&A session and a drinks reception.
In the Chair: Sir Alan Dashwood QC
What does the Brexit process tell us about shifting views of law and constitutional legitimacy within and across the United Kingdom? Events since 2014 have increased the need for a new constitutional settlement, even as the country becomes more profoundly divided about what that might entail. The alternative is an unstable period of majoritarian identity politics, with consequences for the UK’s economic wellbeing and national cohesion.
UKAEL Student Event: EU Law in Practice: A discussion With EU Law Professionals – 20 November 2018, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP
The UK Association for European Law invited students, trainee solicitors and pupil barristers to an evening of short talks on practising EU Law both now and post Brexit. The event was hosted by Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP.
This was an informal occasion to meet EU Law professionals and fellow EU Law students. The presentations addressed the practice of EU Law, both now and in the future, in different sectors of the professional world. Speakers covered typical work scenarios and career patterns of their work and answered numerous questions. The meeting was attended by over 100 people and was followed by a lively reception.
• The Bar: Anneli Howard, Monckton Chambers
• The Government: David Thorneloe, DExEU Legal Advisers
• Academia: Prof Andrea Biondi, King’s College London
• The International Law Firm: Martin McElwee, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP
Rhodri Thompson QC, UKAEL Honorary Treasurer, was in the chair.
UKAEL Seminar: Brexit and the Free Movement of Persons – 6 November 2018, Room C309, City, University of London
Three leading UK experts on EU law and immigration policy discussed one of the central issues in the ongoing debate over the UK withdrawal from the EU.
Prof Michael Dougan, Professor of European Law and Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law at the University of Liverpool – “Citizens’ Rights in the Draft Withdrawal Agreement”
In March 2018, the EU and the UK reached agreement on the citizens’ rights provisions of the draft withdrawal treaty provided for under Article 50 TEU. This paper considered some of the key issues raised by that agreement: for example, the implications of using existing EU free movement law as the general baseline for protection under the withdrawal treaty; various situations where the withdrawal treaty envisages divergent standards of protection as compared to existing EU law; and some of the peculiar features concerning interpretation, enforcement and governance of the citizens’ rights provisions.
Sir Nicholas Blake QC, founding member of Matrix Chambers – “Treaty-Based Rights to Free Movement”
Sir Nicholas began with the distinction between discretionary admission of aliens under the Immigration Rules and EU rights of free movement to enter and remain in the UK pursuant to the Treaties and the measures adopted to give effect to them. He explored how case law over the past 40 years established Treaty based rights including EU rights for British citizens seeking to leave and re-enter the UK and citizenship rights. If there is a future agreement for reciprocal benefits for EU citizens, how should these rights and obligations be provided for?
Adrian Berry, immigration barrister at Garden Court Chambers – “Losers under the Withdrawal Agreement and the Future of Migration to and from the EU”
Adrian started with the situation of people in the UK by virtue of EU law who will not be protected by the Withdrawal Agreement after the end of the transition period in 2020. He set out who stands to lose out. After that he examined the future of migration policy to and from the EU. He considered aspects of economic migration policy, the migration of British citizens to and around the remaining EU 27 States, short-term provision of professional and commercial services by UK-based entitles to EU clients, and the impact on investment decisions on transnational businesses with offices in the UK and other EU States. He also considered the rise of a common EU-wide immigration policy and its competitive effect on the setting of in-bound UK immigration policy.
The seminar was chaired by Prof Philippa Watson, Essex Court Chambers, Honorary Secretary of UKAEL, and was followed by a drinks reception for the 50 attendees.
UKAEL Book Launch: “EU Customs Law (Third Edition)” by Timothy Lyons QC – 11 July 2018, The River Room, King’s College London
The UKAEL in association with the Centre of European Law at King’s College London invited their membership to the launch of “EU Customs Law (Third Edition)” by Timothy Lyons QC.
Timothy Lyons QC of 39 Essex Chambers is well known for his work on EU customs, trade, WTO and tax matters. The book launch provided an opportunity to reflect on the significance of EU customs law after 50 years of customs union, at a time when new challenges are arising in international affairs and Brexit is dominating UK politics.
Introduction by Sir Francis Jacobs KCMG QC,King’s College London
Comments by Josephine Norris-Usher, European Commission
Sir Alan Dashwood QC, Henderson Chambers, in the chair
The Book Launch included a drinks reception for about 30 attendees.
UKAEL/CEL Seminar: The EU and Free Trade: Law and Policy – 9 May 2018, Bush House, King’s College London
In this tumultuous moment for global trade governance, the European Union places itself as leader for reform. The challenges that the EU faces in this reform process are however numerous and, as highlighted by recent pronouncements of the European Court of Justice such as the Singapore Opinion and the Achmea judgment, include, among others, the limits of the EU competencies for the conclusion of its broad Free Trade Agreements and the future of investor-state disputes in the EU.
On the very “fitting” date of Europe Day (9 May), the Centre of European Law of King’s College London and the UKAEL (UK Association for European Law), in the framework of the Jean Monnet Network “LAwTTIP: Legal Ambiguities withstanding the TTIP,” arranged a seminar on The EU and Free Trade: Law and Policy.
This seminar provided an opportunity for expert analysis of these and many more issues relating to the future of EU trade. The panel included Dr Isabelle Van Damme, Counsel at Van Bael & Bellis, Dr Lucio Gussetti, Director and Principal Legal Adviser for Foreign and External Relations of the European Commission, and Sir Alan Dashwood QC. Christopher Vajda QC, Judge at the European Court of Justice, was in the chair.
The seminar was followed by a drinks reception for 60 attendees.
UKAEL Seminar: An Evening with our National FIDE Rapporteurs – 23 April 2018, City, University of London, Room ELG01, Drysdale Building
The XXVIII FIDE Congress was held in Estoril, Portugal from 23-26 May 2018. It is a biennial event attended by over 500 jurists. The UKAEL is the UK branch of FIDE and we therefore encourage all our membership to attend this very important conference. For those unable to attend, the UKAEL, in conjunction with the City Law School London, arranged a seminar with our national rapporteurs.
“The External Dimension of EU Policies”, presented by Prof Panos Koutrakos, Professor of European Union Law, Jean Monnet Chair in European Law, City, University of London.
“Tax, State Aid and Distortions of Competition”, presented by Prof Andrea Biondi, Professor of European Union Law, Director Centre of European Law, Dickson Poon School of Law, Kings College London.
The seminar was chaired by Prof Phiippa Watson, UKAEL Secretary, Essex Chambers, City Law School
The seminar was followed by a drinks reception for the 20 attendees.
UKAEL Seminar: The Achmea Judgment of the CJEU – An Answer at last to the Issue of the Legality of intra-EU Bits? – 26 March 2018, River Room, King’s College London, Strand Campus
The CJEU passed judgment in the Achmea case on 6 March. This might at last provide an answer to the question of the compatibility with EU law of the many intra-EU BITs resulting from the accessions of 2004, 2007 and 2013. Read with Advocate General Wathelet’s Opinion, the judgment would be of intense interest both to EU law specialists and to specialists in international investment law.
This seminar provided an early opportunity for expert analysis of the issues, from the investment law perspective by Dr Lorand Bartels of the University of Cambridge, and from the EU law perspective by Prof Panos Koutrakos of City University, with commentary by the Chair, Sir Alan Dashwood QC, in the light of his practical experience of the Micula litigation.
The seminar was followed by a drinks reception for the approximately 40 attendees.
UKAEL Annual Lecture: European Law in the United Kingdom – 14 December 2017, Great Hall, King’s College London
Sir Jonathan Faull delivered the Annual Lecture which was followed by a very interesting Q&A session and a lively drinks reception.
In the Chair: Sir Alan Dashwood QC
UKAEL Seminar: The Withdrawal Bill and What Follows: Progress and Prospects of the Bill and Possible Transitional Arrangements – 16 November 2017, River Room, King’s College London, Strand Campus
A view from the Bar – Rhodri Thompson QC
A view from the House of Lords – Lord Hannay of Chiswick
The Shape and Legal Basis of Transitional Arrangements – Sir Alan Dashwood QC
Chaired by Sir Francis Jacobs QC
This seminar examined the progress of the Withdrawal Bill from a legal and political perspective as well as the challenges and limitations of the draft legislation. Sir Alan Dashwood then discussed the increasingly urgent question of what interim arrangements can be put in place if the two-year Article 50 negotiation period expires without any final agreement having been reached.
Sir Alan Dashwood and Rhodri Thompson are respectively the President and Honorary Treasurer of the UKAEL; Lord Hannay was the UK’s Permanent Representative in Brussels and subsequently Ambassador to the United Nations. He is presently a cross-bench member of the House of Lords.
The presentations were summed up by Sir Francis Jacobs QC and followed by a discussion before the 50 attendees were invited to join the speakers for a glass of wine.
UKAEL Student Evening: EU Law in Practice : The Impact of Brexit. A discussion with EU Law Professionals – 18 October 2017, Hogan Lovells LLP
The UK Association for European Law invited students, trainee solicitors and pupil barristers to an evening of short talks on practising EU Law both now and post Brexit. The event was hosted by Hogan Lovells LLP.
This was an informal occasion to meet EU Law professionals and fellow EU Law students. The presentations addressed the practice of EU Law, both now and in the future, in different sectors of the professional world. Speakers covered typical work scenarios and career patterns of their work and answered numerous questions. The meeting was attended by approx. 100 people and was followed by a lively reception.
• The Bar (Alan Bates, Monckton Chambers)
• The Government (Daniel Denman, Director DExEU Legal Advisers)
• Academia (Prof Andrea Biondi, King’s College London)
• The International Law Firm: (Christopher Hutton, Partner Hogan Lovells)
Prof Philippa Watson, UKAEL Honorary Secretary, was in the Chair.
UKAEL Seminar: The Unified Patent Court and the UK. A Glimmer of Hope for a Softish Brexit? – 13 March 2017, River Room, King’s College London, Strand Campus
Dr Christopher Stothers, partner at Arnold & Porter Kaye Scholer LLP: What is the UPC?
“The proposed Unified Patent Court (UPC) is an international patent court which will include UK judges. It will hear pan-European patent disputes which at present are typically heard country-by-country (under the Brussels Regulation). Under the UPC Agreement, the UPC must respect European Union law and cooperate with the CJEU by relying on its case law and making references. However, the CJEU previously considered a proposed European and Community Patents Court, which also allowed references to the CJEU, and found it in breach of EU law, apparently in part because it included non-Member States of the EU. Can the UK participate in a UPC which relies on and refers to the CJEU? Can the EU participate in a UPC which the UK participates in?”
Dr Luke McDonagh, Senior Lecturer at City, University of London: What is the substantive role of the ECJ in the UPC?
“While the European Patent Convention remains outside of EU law even within the Unified Patent Court (UPC) system, the fact remains that there are several pieces of patent-related EU legislation, including the Biotech Directive, and regulations covering Supplementary Protection Certificates. For this reason there are several important questions – concerning the nature of patentable biotechnological inventions and the extension of patent protection for pharmaceutical inventions – that may require the UPC to request rulings of the CJEU.”
Duncan Matthews, Professor of Intellectual Property Law at the Centre for Commercial Law Studies, Queen Mary University of London: How can we make it work post-Brexit?
The presentations were summed up by Sir Alan Dashwood QC and followed by a discussion before the 40 attendees were invited to join the speakers at a drinks reception.
UKAEL Annual Lecture: Brexit Means What? – 7 December 2016, Edmond J Safra Theatre, King’s College London
Michael Dougan, Professor of European Law and Jean Monnet Chair in EU Law at the University of Liverpool, gave the Annual Address to an audience of 120 people, followed by a very lively Q&A session and a drinks reception.
In the Chair: Sir Alan Dashwood QC
UKAEL Seminar: The EU Reform Package and the Referendum Debate: Burning Questions – 9 March 2016, River Room, King’s College London, Strand Campus
Lord Hannay of Chiswick, Former UK Permanent Representative to the EU and a cross-bencher in the House of Lords: “Sovereignty; the legislative burden of voting for Brexit; Brexit and internal security; Article 50 and the forlorn hope of a re-re-negotiation”
Sir Alan Dashwood QC, Henderson Chambers, Professor at City University London and President of the UKAEL: “Is the reform package legally binding and irreversible? The legal nature and effect of the Decision of the Heads of State or Government of the Member States on the EU Reform Package, and the legal arrangements for implementing its various elements”
Prof Derrick Wyatt QC, Brick Court Chambers: “Does the British Constitution need statutory protection from the excesses of the CJEU? The UK Supreme Court has flagged up the possibility that judgments of the CJEU which lack a credible legal basis or infringe fundamental principles of the British Constitution might be inapplicable under the European Communities Act. The Prime Minister has indicated that steps might need to be taken to prevent such judgments undermining the British Constitution and UK sovereignty. Are any such steps necessary or feasible?”
Prof Philippa Watson, Essex Court Chambers and UKAEL Secretary, was in the chair. The presentations were followed by discussion and debate before the 50 attendees joined the speakers at a drinks reception.
UKAEL Student Evening: EU Law in Practice: An audience with EU Law Professionals – 23 February 2016, Linklaters LLP
The UK Association for European Law invited students, trainee solicitors and pupil barristers to an evening of short talks on practising EU Law. It was an informal occasion to meet EU Law professionals and fellow EU Law students. The presentations addressed the practice of EU Law in different sectors of the professional world. Speakers covered typical work scenarios and career patterns and answered numerous questions. The meeting was attended by about 80 people and was followed by a lively reception.
The Bar (Michael Bowsher QC, Monckton Chambers)
The Government (Daniel Denman, Director of the Cabinet Office European Law Division in the Treasury Solicitor’s Department)
Academia (Prof Andrea Biondi, King’s College London)
The EU Institutions (Jacqueline Minor, Head of European Commission Representation in London)
Prof Philippa Watson, Essex Court Chambers, was in the Chair.
UKAEL Annual Lecture: Brexit: Process, Substance and Consequence – 16 December 2015, Edmond J Safra Theatre, King’s College London
Prof Paul Craig, University of Oxford, gave the Annual Address to an audience of 150 people, followed by a lively Q&A session and a drinks reception.
In the Chair: Sir Alan Dashwood QC
UKAEL Seminar: Opinion 2/13 on accession by the European Union to the ECHR: Is it convincing? Is there a way forward? Are there wider constitutional implications? – 23 April 2015, River Room, Strand Campus, King’s College London
Sir Alan Dashwood QC, Henderson Chambers, City University of London: A critical overview of Opinion 2/13
The grounds on which the envisaged Agreement was found to be incompatible with the Treaties will be considered in turn, and their persuasiveness (or otherwise) assessed. Is it harsh to regard some of the objections raised in the Opinion as trivial? Was the Court simply looking for reasons to say “No”?
Dr Tobias Lock, Edinburgh Law School, University of Edinburgh: Accession after Opinion 2/13? The way forward
The Court has erected a number of hurdles for future accession negotiations in Opinion 2/13. It will be explored what these hurdles are, if and how they can be overcome, and how far accession is still desirable in light of them.
Prof Michael Dougan, Liverpool Law School, University of Liverpool: The EU legal order as articulated by the Court of Justice in Opinion 2/13
In Opinion 2/13, the Court of Justice sets out its understanding of the fundamental principles of the EU legal order in a clear and systematic manner which is actually quite rare in the caselaw. This presentation will consider the “world view” of the EU legal system presented by the Court and assess its constitutional significance.
Prof Philippa Watson, Essex Court Chambers, in the Chair
UKAEL Student Evening: EU Law in Practice: An audience with EU Law Professionals – 4 February 2015, Linklaters
The UK Association for European Law invited students, trainee solicitors and pupil barristers to an evening of short talks on practising EU Law. This was, as always, an informal and very friendly occasion to meet EU Law professionals and fellow EU Law students. The short presentations introduced different sectors of EU Law in the professional world. Speakers covered typical work scenarios and career patterns and answered numerous questions during the lively drinks reception that followed. Linklaters LLP hosted the event on their prestigious premises in the City of London.
The Bar (Jane Russell, Essex Court Chambers)
The International law firm (Sir Christopher Bellamy QC, Chairman, Linklaters Global Competition Practice)
The Government (Daniel Denman, Director of the Cabinet Office European Law Division in the Treasury Solicitor’s Department)
Academia (Dr Oana Stefan, King’s College London)
Prof Philippa Watson chaired the event.
UKAEL 40th Anniversary Annual Lecture: – 1 December 2014, Great Hall, Strand Campus, King’s College London
The Anniversary Lecture on “The tangled tale of Britain’s block opt-out from the EU’s Justice and Home Affairs Legislation (Protocol 36 of the Lisbon Treaty)” was delivered by Lord Hannay of Chiswick.
In the chair: Sir Alan Dashwood QC
UKAEL Seminar: Untying the knot with Europe: The legal implications of UK withdrawal from the EU – 28 October 2014, Council Room, King’s College London
Sir Alan Dashwood QC, Henderson Chambers: The process of withdrawal from the EU would be legally complex and probably lengthy. Among the issues to be addressed would be: disengagement from EU institutions and agencies, including the position of UK personnel; vested EU rights of individuals and companies; a review of UK legislation with an EU provenance; and settling the UK’s future relationship with the EU and the rest of the world. Will the game be worth the candle?
Martin Howe QC, 8 New Square Chambers: Withdrawal mechanics under TEU Article 50; consequences and adjustments to UK domestic law; negotiation of international trade relations with EFTA, non-EU States and with the EU itself; and replacement of existing EU mechanisms with accession to existing multilateral treaties or with bilateral agreements.
In the chair: Prof Philippa Watson, Essex Court Chambers
UKAEL/UCL Joint Seminar: An introduction to the National Rapporteurs and their FIDE reports on EMU Governance, EU Citizenship and Public Procurement – 18 March 2014, University College London, Bentham House
Union Citizenship: Development, Impact and Challenges
UK Rapporteurs: Dr Thomas Horsley, University of Liverpool; Stephanie Reynolds, University of Liverpool
Public Procurement Law: Limitations, Opportunities and Paradoxes
UK Rapporteur: Brian Doherty, Northern Ireland Executive
Panel discussion on Britain & the Eurozone (FIDE topic: The Economic and Monetary Union)
UK Rapporteurs: Prof Piet Eeckhout, UCL; Dr Michael Waibel, University of Cambridge
Chaired by Sir Alan Dashwood QC (Henderson Chambers, City University)
UKAEL Student Evening: EU Law in Practice – 6 March 2014, Hogan Lovells LLP
The UK Association for European Law invited students, trainee solicitors and pupil barristers to an evening of short talks on practising EU Law. This was as always an informal and very friendly occasion to meet EU Law professionals and fellow EU Law students. Approximately 70 students attended the evening.
The Bar – David Anderson QC, Brick Court Chambers
The International Law Firm – Charles Brasted, Hogan Lovells
The Government – Daniel Denman, Cabinet Office European Law Division
Academia and Chair – Prof Andrea Biondi, King’s College London, Director Centre of European Law
EU Institutions – Lorna Armati, Legal Service, European Commission
UKAEL Annual Lecture: Britain and Europe: a new stage in an old debate – 9 October 2013, Edmond J Safra Lecture Theatre, Strand Campus, King’s College London
Sir Nigel Sheinwald gave the 2013 Annual Address for the UK Association for European Law. The lecture received an enthusiastic response and was followed by an extended question and answer session.
In the chair: Sir Francis Jacobs QC, president of the UKAEL
Joint Conference UKAEL/ISEL: Current Issues in the EU: Public Procurement; The Proposed European Sales Law; Actions for Damages in Competition Law – 21 June 2013
Welcome by Sir Francis Jacobs QC KCMG, King’s College London, UKAEL President
Morning sessions chaired by The Hon Mr Justice Niall Fennelly, Supreme Court of Ireland, ISEL President
Dr Catherine Donnelly, Barrister, Blackstone Chambers and Law Library, Dublin and Associate Professor and Fellow, Trinity College Dublin: Public Procurement: Remedies in the United Kingdom and Ireland
Michael Bowsher QC, Monckton Chambers: Public Procurement: The Proposed Reform of the EU Public Procurement Rules
Afternoon sessions chaired by Prof Philippa Watson, Essex Court Chambers and Hon Secretary of the UKAEL
The Rt Hon Sir John Thomas, President of the Queen’s Bench Division, High Court of Justice, and Dr John Sorabji, Legal Secretary to the Master of the Rolls: European Sales Law: The Proposed Common European Sales Law (CESL)
Anthony M. Collins SC, Law Library, Dublin: Private Enforcement of Competition Rules: Reflections on Competition Enforcement in Ireland
The Hon Mr Justice Gerald Barling, President, Competition Appeal Tribunal: Private Enforcement of the Competition Rules in the United Kingdom: A New Impetus
Joint UKAEL/Matrix Chambers Seminar: 40 Years on: The Sovereignty Debate – 27 March 2013, RSA House, London
1 January 2013 marked the 40th anniversary of the first expansion of the EU and the accession of the United Kingdom. As the Prime Minister’s recent speech has demonstrated, EU membership continues to raise unprecedented legal and constitutional issues for the United Kingdom. To mark this historic anniversary, the UKAEL and Matrix Chambers hosted a seminar at which leading experts in the field debated the central issues of sovereignty and the rule of law as reflected in the relationship between the UK and EU legal systems.
Sir Francis Jacobs KCMG QC, King’s College London, UKAEL
Sir Konrad Schiemann, former UK Judge at the ECJ
Rhodri Thompson QC, Matrix Chambers
ProfTakis Tridimas, Queen Mary University of London, Matrix Chambers
Jessica Simor, Matrix Chambers
UKAEL conference jointly organised with the Criminal Justice Centre, Queen Mary, University of London: EU Criminal Law: Current Issues – 22 February 2013, Signet Library, Edinburgh
Morning chaired by Philippa Watson, Essex Court Chambers
Welcome by UKAEL president Sir Francis Jacobs QC, King’s College London
The European Public Prosecutor, The Rt Hon Frank Mulholland QC, Lord Advocate
Developments in the exchange and admissibility of evidence in Criminal Cases in the EU, Mark Mackarel, University of Dundee
A leap in the dark? The consequences of opt-out from EU criminal justice, Murdo MacLeod QC, Compass Chambers, Edinburgh, Delegate to the CCBE Criminal Law Committee
Afternoon chaired by Sir David Edward QC, University of Edinburgh
The European Law Institute: Launch in the United Kingdom, Sir Francis Jacobs QC, King’s College London
How “fundamental” is the Charter right against double jeopardy? Patrick Layden QC, Scottish Law Commission
The European Arrest Warrant After NS and Assange, Prof Valsamis Mitsilegas, Head of the Department of Law and Director of the Criminal Justice Centre, Queen Mary University of London.
UKAEL Student Evening: EU Law in Practice – 29 November 2012, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP
The UKAEL welcomed 80 law students to the stunning offices of Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP in Fleet Street.
The programme consisted of short perspectives from the Bar – David Anderson QC (Brickcourt Chambers); from an International Law firm – William Robinson (Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP); from the Government – Daniel Denman (Cabinet Office European Law Division); from Academia – Prof Andrea Biondi (King’s College London); from the European Institutions – Nicholas Khan, Legal Service European Commission
Chaired by Prof Philippa Watson, Essex Court Chambers, Honorary Secretary of the UKAEL
UKAEL Annual Lecture: Proportionality: the way ahead? – 12 November 2012, Edmond J Safra Lecture Theatre, Strand Campus, King’s College London
The Annual Address was given by The Rt. Hon Lady Justice Mary Arden.
UKAEL Seminar: Competition Law and Fundamental Rights – 20 June 2012, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP
Chaired by Prof Richard Whish, King’s College London
EU law and fundamental rights – current status (background and update), Aiden O’Neill QC, Matrix Chambers
Remedies for fundamental rights breaches in the EU and competition cases, Tim Ward QC, Monckton Chambers
Fundamental rights arguments in competition cases, Dr Martin Klusmann, Freshfields, Dusseldorf
UKAEL Seminar: An Evening with the UK FIDE rapporteurs – 20 March 2012, Institute of Advanced Legal Studies
The UKAEL held an evening seminar to introduce the UK rapporteurs and their reports for the biennial FIDE CONGRESS to be held in Tallinn on 30 May to 2 June 2012. This evening was jointly organised with the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies.
UKAEL Seminar: Challenging Contract Award Decisions: Recent Developments in Public Procurement Law – 25 January 2012, River Room, King’s College London
Topics covered included:
Recent cases on interim remedies against contract award decisions
The developing law on applications to lift the automatic stay
The Commission’s draft proposal for a Directive on service concessions (COM(2011) 897 final)
The implications of extending the Remedies Directive to awards of service concessions
Philip Moser, Monckton Chambers
Denis Edwards, Francis Taylor Building
In the chair Prof Philippa Watson, Essex Court Chambers, Hon Secretary of the UKAEL
UKAEL Student Evening: EU Law in Practice – 10 November 2011, Slaughter and May
90 students enjoyed an evening of short talks by our hosts and UKAEL committee members on practising EU Law. At this year’s evening, the FIDE essay prize competition was launched.
UKAEL Annual Lecture: The Composition of the European Court of Justice – 19 October 2011, Edmond J Safra Lecture Theatre, Strand Campus, King’s College London
The Annual Lecture was given by Lord Mance, Justice of the Supreme Court.
In the chair: Sir Francis Jacobs QC, President of the UKAEL
Joint UKAEL/Welsh Government conference: EU Law and the Land – 22 September 2011, Swalec Stadium, Cardiff
UKAEL’s first conference in Wales with sessions on agricultural and environmental law and EU Law. With expert speakers from the Bar, Academia, the Welsh government and the European Commission. The event was chaired by Clive Lewis QC, First Counsel of the Welsh Government and Graham Waters of Civitas Law.
UKAEL conference: Fundamental Rights within the EU: Fundamental Problems? – 24 June 2011, Goodenough College, London
The UKAEL returned to this charming venue in the heart of London for a one-day meeting on Fundamental Rights. Chaired and organised by UKAEL Hon Secretary Prof Philippa Watson.
Joint UKAEL / School of Law at the University of Glasgow Workshop: EU criminal law and the UK: Where do rights come in? – 13th May 2011
This one- day workshop brought together a range of academics and practitioners to explore where and how rights fit into the application of EU criminal law in the UK. In addition to offering a useful account of the post Lisbon landscape this workshop offered practical perspectives on the application of the European Arrest Warrant and an account of how rights in the criminal law field were being developed at both EU and ECHR levels.
UKAEL Seminar: Gender Equality, The Charter of Fundamental Rights & Insurance Premiums and Benefits: Case C-236/09 – 5 April 2011
On 1 March the ECJ decided in case C-236/09, Association Belge des Consommateurs Test-Achats ASBL and Others v Conseil des Ministres, that taking the gender of the insured individual into account when determining insurance premiums and benefits was, in principle, discriminatory and contrary to EU law. It declared the relevant derogation in Directive 2004/13 to be invalid and relied, in part, on the Charter of Fundamental Rights, in reaching that conclusion. The UKAEL held an evening seminar to discuss the implications of the case, including the development of the principle of equality, particularly in the insurance industry, the role of the Charter, and the role of the ECJ.
Chaired by Prof Philippa Watson, Essex Court Chambers
Daniel Beard QC, Monckton Chambers
Charles Raikes, Legal Adviser at the Government Equalities Office
UKAEL Annual Lecture: 25 November 2010
The Annual Address was delivered by The Minister of State for Europe, David Lidington MP.
Lady Justice Arden was in the Chair.
UKAEL Student Evening: EU Law in Practice – 10 November 2010, Allen & Overy LLP
Joint UKAEL/Institute of European Law at the University of Birmingham Conference: Remedies for Breach of EU Law Revisited – 18 June 2010, King’s College London
In June 1995 the UKAEL organised a conference entitled ‘Remedies for Breach of EC Law before National Courts’. Contributions were later published in a book entitled Remedies for Breach of EC Law.
With this conference, both the UK Association for European Law and the Centre of European Law expressed their appreciation for their respective former president, The Rt Hon Lord Slynn of Hadley, who chaired the original conference.
UKAEL Seminar: Preparing for FIDE XXIV: The UK Reports – 14 June 2010, Matrix Chambers
The UK rapporteurs presented their reports to a small group of interested jurists. This event was very generously hosted by Matrix Chambers.
UKAEL Conference: EU Law and Devolution: The Relationship between Devolved Jurisdictions and the European Union – 23 April 2010, Debating Chamber of the Scottish Parliament Buildings, Edinburgh
UKAEL Seminar: Lisbon: A Treaty for the 21st Century? – 16 December 2009, Edmond J Safra Lecture Theatre, King’s College London
The seminar was led by Paul Berman from the Treasurer Solicitors Department and Cabinet Office, with contributions from Professors Eeckhout and Tridimas and UKAEL president Sir Francis Jacobs QC.
UKAEL Student Evening: EC Law in Practice – 12 November 2009, CMS Cameron McKenna LLP
UKAEL Annual Lecture: Advocate General Miguel P Maduro – 19 October 2009
Joint UKAEL/ISEL Conference: Current Issues in EU Public Procurement and State Aid – 19 June 2009, Goodenough College
The conference sessions covered Remedies and Case-studies on Public Procurement issues, as well as current topics in State Aid law, such as the EC Commission’s response to the banking crisis, and recent judgments of the Luxembourg courts in the Ryanair and BUPA cases. The conference was rounded off with a dinner in the splendid Parliament Chamber at Middle Temple. At the conference David Vaughan CBE QC paid tribute to former UKAEL president Lord Slynn of Hadley.